Categories
Linux Server Administration

Dedicated IP addresses and virtual machines

In today’s world, more and more things are running virtualized. Increasingly popular are those little things called “containers”. I feel like these are slowly replacing the “old” fully fledged virtual machines (VMs) in many areas. Yet they still exist and I still use them quite frequently.

The following talks mostly about my own typical server setup, which is Debian + VirtualBox. However, principles may apply to different setup types (non-Debian, containers) too.

When running a VM on a server, I often need to assign them dedicated IP addresses. How I do this depends a little on the host and the VM, but for my Debian + VirtualBox setups in the past I relied on a very old guide from Hetzner (partially still available here, german only). The guide pretty much suggested this config:

auto virbr1
iface virbr1 inet static
   address (Host IP)
   netmask 255.255.255.255
   bridge_ports none
   bridge_stp off
   bridge_fd 0
   pre-up brctl addbr virbr1
   up ip route add (Additional IPv4)/32 dev virbr1
   down ip route del (Additional IPv4)/32 dev virbr1

(This shows IPv4 only – IPv6 is highly similar, with inet6 instead of inet, all netmasks replaced by IPv6 compatible syntax and ip -6 instead of ip)

This is something that you would put into /etc/network/interfaces and then tell VirtualBox to use that interface as a bridge. Then you could configure the guest as you would configure a host by putting the additional IP as static IP and setting the host IP as gateway.

What this technically does is it creates a new interface using brctl (command from the bridge-utils package) which is then configured as some type of “fake bridge”, because we don’t actually assign it an interface to bridge to. Instead we tell the kernel that we want packages to our additional IP get forwarded into this virtual interface, where it gets picked up by our VM [This obviously requires forwarding enabled in the kernel, e.g net.ipv4.ip_forward=1 for IPv4 and net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding=1 for IPv6].

This used to work nicely for quite a few years – I believe I’ve been using this setup since either Debian jessie or stretch – somewhere around that. However, on upgrading to Debian bullseye, it broke – the VMs would no longer receive any packets.

I’m still not sure what broke it – the new 5.10 kernel or a change in bridge-utils probably – but I found a solution, hence this blog post. Instead of creating a “fake bridge”, just use a tuntap virtual interface. My new workflow is like this:

Have a bashscript running on boot that pretty much does this:

#!/bin/bash
ip tuntap add mode tap virbr1
ip addr add <Host IP> dev virbr1
ip link set virbr1 up
ip [-6] route add <Dedicated IP>/<Netmask> dev virbr1

(I’ve retained the “virbr1” interface name from the example above for consistency)

You can probably convert the above bash script into a syntax compatible with /etc/network/interfaces, but I decided to not bother with that – nowadays theres often additional network management software installed which just interferes with the old file.

The approach is functionally still the same: It’s a routed configuration that forwards packets from the incoming physical interface to the virtual tuntap interface, where they get picked up by the VM – and vice versa for outbound packets. The use of the tuntap interface just avoids the bridged interface, which doesn’t work anymore anyway.

This approach seems to be suggested by the new Hetzner documentation, altough they lack examples on how to setup such a tap interface – hence my example above.

For full completeness, I will also shortly show how to configure a VM to use this virtual interface:

First of all, make sure IPv4/IPv6 packet forwarding is on – it’s not going to work otherwise. Second, configure VirtualBox to use the virtual interface as a “bridged adapter”, like this:

Screenshot from phpVirtualBox

If you don’t have a GUI for VirtualBox, you will need to figure out the VBoxManage command to do the same thing – good luck with that.

Then, configure your guest like this (example for /etc/network/interfaces)

auto enp0s8
iface enp0s8 inet[6] static
  address <Dedicated IP>
  netmask <Netmask>
  gateway <Host IP>

(The name of the interface – enp0s8 – depends on how your guest OS names the bridged adapter from VirtualBox – check ip a on the guest)

And that’s it. That’s the very short tutorial on how to assign your VM’s dedicated IP addresses (v4 or v6, or both).

Categories
Linux Server Administration

Dovecot and Argon2 doesn’t work? This may be why.

Sorry, title is too long. Again. Nevertheless, ignore this and continue on…

I run my own mailserver. I love doing this, don’t ask me why. Anyway, I was recently migrating a few password hashes to Argon2. I confirmed manually that everything was working, I checked that Dovecot was able to generate and verify Argon2 hashes, that my backend storage was doing everything correctly and so on.

Then I changed a bunch of passwords to migrate them over to Argon2 (I was previously using bcrypt, but I started to like Argon2 more because of it’s resistance to many optimization attacks). Just after I had those new Argon2 hashes in the database, I could no longer login using these users. I think it worked like once and then never again.

Well, damn. I spend hours researching what may be wrong. Dovecot was simply spitting out it’s usual “dovecot: auth-worker(pid): Password mismatch” message. Nothing I could get any information from. To summarize what I found in the ‘net: Nothing of use.

So well, why am I writing this post then? Well because I finally figured out what’s wrong. The Dovecot documentation states this:

ARGON2 can require quite a hefty amount of virtual memory, so we recommend that you set service auth { vsz_limit = 2G } at least, or more.

https://doc.dovecot.org/configuration_manual/authentication/password_schemes/

Well, I obviously already did that – I do read the documentation from time to time, at least when I’m trying to solve a critical problem. But you know what’s strange? The docs also state that the actual login isn’t handled by the auth service, instead it’s usually done by a service called auth-worker 1[at least if you’re using a database like I do] (that’s also the thing that’s producing the “Password mismatch” log messages).

To make a long story short, what happened was that Dovecot stopped the auth-worker process as it was trying to hash the Argon2 password. This simply triggered a generic “Password mismatch” message instead of something useful like “out of memory”, so yeah…

Lesson Learned: If you’re using Argon2, increase the memory limit of auth-worker, not the auth service like the docs tell you to.

This was the solution. I simply added a few config lines to Dovecot:

service auth-worker {
   # Needed for argon2. THIS IS THE IMPORTANT SETTING!
   vsz_limit = 0 # Means unlimited, other values like 2G or more also also valid
   # Other custom settings for your auth-workers here...
}

And login was working again. I never found anyone mentioning that you need to set this value for auth-worker instead of auth, which is why I wrote this little post.

Categories
Linux

I can’t remember tar commands

.zip, .tar, .tar.gz, .tar.bz, .gz, .tar.bz2 and so much fucking more archive file formats! There are like a bazillion archive/compression formats on this earth. And everyone uses something else.

But how to handle all these? On systems with a proper GUI this is mostly pretty simple stuff – just install a proper tool that can handle all of these. For example on Windows just put it into 7-Zip and you’re good to go. Most modern Linux distros also ship something at least partially useful nowadays.

But what if you’re working pure command line with no fancy tools installed AND YOU JUST WANT TO FUCKING UNZIP THE ARCHIVE YOU JUST DOWNLOADED? The professionals will tell you to just tar -xzf the whole archive1 (or something thereabout). But wait, wasn’t it tar -jxf? I just can’t remember…

“Luckily, there’s always a search machine to help you out”, I thought. “The answer is just one google away.” – And well, it is. But after I googled the same tar command for the 9000th time I just told myself: “I don’t want to do that anymore”. It just feels stupid to forget the same command over and over again, but I can’t help it. So I needed a solution that felt at least slighty more smart than just google the command everytime I unpack some archive.

Protip: Bash supports aliases!

And that’s exactly how I solved it. I just added some aliases for common archive files with an easy to remember alias. The alias rule is pretty simple: Just write “un” (short for “unpack”) and then the file ending without any dots. For example, if I wanted to unpack a .tar.gz file I would just write “untargz <filename>“. MUCH easier to remember, right? Well, at least for me it is.

If you want to do the same thing, you will need to create the neccessary aliases in your shell. A common place to put these is your .bashrc file located in your users home directory (e.g /home/max/.bashrc). Some systems also have a dedicated .bash_aliases file in the same directory which is loaded by the bashrc-file. If you have such a file you may also use that. The following is an excerpt from my .bashrc file, which includes aliases for common Unix archive filetypes.

# ~/.bashrc: executed by bash(1) for non-login shells.

# You may uncomment the following lines if you want `ls' to be colorized: (Everyone likes colors, right?)
export LS_OPTIONS='--color=auto'
eval "`dircolors`"
alias ls='ls $LS_OPTIONS'
alias ll='ls $LS_OPTIONS -l'
alias l='ls $LS_OPTIONS -lA'
alias untargz='tar -xzf'
alias untarbz='tar -xzf'
alias ungz='gunzip'
alias untarbz2='tar -jxf'

There are many more archive filetypes, but the aliases above cover the most common ones – if you need more, you can certainly figure out how to add these yourself. To me these aliases have been highly useful. Maybe someone else will find them useful too.

PS: The “ls” aliases shown above where suggested by another individual. I also found them to be useful, especially the ‘l’ shortcut for ls -lA which is why I included them here too.